Rye is an important grain for Germany, Russia and Scandinavia. Rye has a similar composition to wheat, but without the same amount of gluten.
In Europe, rye is mainly used as flour for making rye bread and crispbread, especially in Germany and Scandinavia. For breadmaking, it is usually mixed with wheat flour in varying amounts to enable the bread to rise, and using the sourdough method. Rye breads often have caraway seeds added in. Dark pumpernickel (schwartzbrod) is based on rye and has a dense, earthy and nutty flavour.
Rye is used in making alcoholic drinks - beer in Russia, gin in the Netherlands and whisky in America.
- Christian, G. (2005) Real Flavours: the handbook of gourmet & deli ingredients, Grub Street. ISBN 1904943209.
- Stobart, T. (1981) The Cook's Encyclopedia: ingredients & processes, Harper & Row. ISBN 0060141271.