Pepper is the quintessential spice and includes the classic peppercorns - black and white pepper - through to the more unusual peppers - cubeb pepper and long pepper. In addition, pepper comprises false peppers that have been called pepper over the centuries. Arguably, chilli peppers also could fit into this category, but they have been kept separate.
Table of Types of Pepper and their Key Characteristics
|Allspice||Jamaica||Larger-sized ball, grey||Spicy sweetness, clove with hints of pepper|
|Andaliman pepper||Indonesia - Sumatra||Small brown broken capsule with shiny 2-3mm shiny black seed||Fresh lemon sherbet aroma, with citrussy taste with a numbing sensation|
|Cubeb pepper||Indonesia||Medium-sized ball and tail, grey-brown||Slightly pungent, with bitter-sweet nutmeg flavours|
|Grains of paradise||West Africa, e.g. Ghana||Small pyramid-shaped, red-brown||Warm, nutmeg sweet and woody, slight bite|
|Long pepper||India, Indonesia||Long catkins, grey-brown||Sweet and spicy peppery kick|
|Pink pepper||Brazil, Réunion||Medium sound, pink berries||Floral, oily taste, mild bitterness|
|Selim pepper||Tropical Africa, e.g. Nigeria||Medium long curved pods, dark brown||Musty, slightly pungent, mildly bitter|
|Sichuan pepper||China||Medium round red capsule, small round black seed inside||Initial citrus then numbing tingle on tongue|
|Tasmanian pepper||Australia||Large round, dark black berries||Numbing heat|
|Black pepper||Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam||Medium round, wrinkled, dark brown-black||Warm, resinous and a hot bite|
|Green pepper||India||Medium round, round or wrinkled, light to darker green||Fresh, with mild pungency|
|Red pepper||India||Medium round, deep red, round or wrinkled||Fruity with mild resinous taste and gentle heat|
|White pepper||India, Indonesia, Vietnam||Medium round, smooth cream berries||Hot with hint of barnyard|
|Voatsiperifery pepper||Madagascar||Small ball and tail, red-brown||Pungent, woody, hint of sweetness|
Types of Pepper
For more detail, here's a list of peppers:
- Vine Pepper: includes black pepper, green pepper, red pepper, white pepper
- Cubeb Pepper
- Long Pepper
- Voatsiperifery Pepper: also known as Madagascan Pepper
- Allspice: also known as Jamaica Pepper
- Grains of Paradise: also known as Melegueta Pepper
- Pink Pepper
- Selim Pepper
- Sichuan Pepper
- Tasmanian Pepper
- Hemphill, I., Hemphill, K. (2014) The Spice and Herb Bible, Robert Rose. ISBN: 9780778804932.
- McFadden, C. (2007) Pepper: the spice that changed the world, Absolute Press. ISBN: 9781904573609.
- Norman, J. (2015) Herbs & Spices: The Cook's Reference, DK Publishing. ISBN: 9781465435989.